It is important to understand obtaining conclusive data on Human subjects is impossible due to variables which cannot be controlled for. This does not discount the data either.
The data presented here has limitations, however, it does provide insights:
a) We did not do blind testing. Athletes knew whether they were using Vespa or not.
b) We have identified several variables and factors which confound the data. We are arranging for future testing to account for these variables and build this Pilot data for the design of a formal placebo controlled study with an independent academic entity.
In this Pilot data collection the series of VO2Max Tests were run on athletes who have long term use experience with Vespa and feel/believe it provides them with performance and recovery benefits. In this series of tests the goal was to realistically control as many of the variables as possible consistent with the athlete’s real world behavior pattern.
The implications of this approach are:
This means we did not want to change their current behavior to control lifestyle variables such as diet, training, sleep, work etc. This is admittedly poor Experimental Design for a formal study, however, by doing so this controlled variables for their personal N=1.
For these subjects the data corroborates their experience. This provides important context for interpretation of the data.